In 1966, Charles Kao made a discovery that led to a breakthrough in fiber optics. He carefully calculated how to transmit light over long distances via optical glass fibers. With a fiber of purest glass it would be possible to transmit light signals over 100 kilometers, compared to only 20 meters for the fibers available in the 1960s. Today's telephony and computer technology is very much based on this discovery, as fiber optics became the bread and butter for surface base broadband commuications.
In 1969 Willard Boyle and George Smith invented the first successful imaging technology using a digital sensor, a CCD (Charge-Coupled Device). Digital photography has become an irreplaceable tool in many fields since and the invention can today be found in digital cameras and space technology.
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